Unlocking the secrets of pollen wall formation

After pollen release from dehisced anthers (pseudo-coloured green), the outer wall encasing pollen grains (pseudo-coloured yellow) serves to protect these reproductive structures from terrestrial stresses. Sporopollenin, one of the most recalcitrant biopolymers produced by plants, is the primary constituent of the outer pollen wall. This image shows a scanning electron micrograph of a critical point dried Arabidopsis thaliana anther and pollen grains at maturity.